The D-Dimer concentration is an indicator for the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin in the vascular system. Acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) can be ruled out with very high accuracy by D-Dimer testing.

The plasma concentration of D-Dimer is elevated in several clinical conditions including DVT, PE and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) [1]. The exclusion of the diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism (DVT and/or PE) is possible when the D-Dimer concentration is below the cut-off established by clinical studies. D-Dimer measurement can also be used as an aid in diagnosis and monitoring of DIC.

Reference ranges

For the PATHFAST D-Dimer assay, the preliminary reference interval measured in 73 healthy individuals was calculated to be: 95% interval (ranging from 2.5th to 97.5th percentile) 0.063–0.701 µg/ml FEU (corresponds to 32–350 ng/ml). The measured D-Dimer values ranged from 0.036 µg/ml FEU (18 ng/ml) to 0.708 µg/ml FEU (354 ng/ml) with a mean of 0.239 µg/ml FEU (120 ng/ml) [2].

A preliminary cut-off of 0.5 µg/ml FEU for exclusion of venous thromboembolism has been established using 60 plasma samples obtained from patients with pulmonary embolism independently diagnosed by echocardiography, spiral-CT and pulmonary angiography [3].



  1. Oude Elfering RF, Loot AE, van de Klashorst CG. Hulsebos-Huygen M et al. Clinical evaluation of eight different D-dimer tests for the exclusion of deep venous thrombosis in primary care patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2015;75:230-8.
  2. Fukuda  T, Kasai  H. A rapid and quantitative D-dimer assay in  whole blood and plasma on the point-of-care PATHFAST analyser. Thromb Res (2007); 10 :1016-20.
  3. Ivandic BT, Spanuth E, Giannitsis E. PATHFAST D-Dimer vs. VIDAS D-dimer Exclusion – a comperative evaluation in emergency patients with post hoc confirmed pulmonary embolism, Poster at 55th Annual meeting of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research 16-19 Feb. 2011, Wiesbaden.